一部中国戏剧史半部在浙江 盘点浙江那些姹紫嫣红的声与腔

进入电脑版    时间:2016-09-09 09:00:55     来源: 浙江文化信息网

  

一部中国戏剧史半部在浙江 盘点浙江那些姹紫嫣红的声与腔

  谈到戏剧,业界有说:“一部中国戏剧史,半部在浙江”,足见浙江在中国戏曲发展史上的地位。浙江戏剧,于戏里戏外,都有着别样的姹紫嫣红。在中共浙江省委宣传部推出的《美丽浙江》系列明信片中,就有一套是以“戏曲浙江”为主题的。

  虽然不是发展历史最久的,但越剧依然是浙江戏曲最知名的代表。越剧有“第二国剧”之称,在国外被称为“中国歌剧”,发源于嵊州,发祥于上海,繁荣于全国,并流传于世界。它在发展中汲取了昆曲、话剧、绍剧等剧种特色,唯美典雅,极具江南灵秀之气。从上世纪五六十年代开始,浙江的越剧团频繁走出国门、作为中国文化的代表去交流演出……每一次都获得了赞誉和掌声。

  早在两宋时期,浙江就成为中国戏曲的桑梓之乡。在都城临安,宋杂剧的演出空前繁荣,在温州一带也诞生了中国戏曲史上第一种较成熟完整的戏剧形式——南戏,又称戏文、温州杂剧、永嘉杂剧等。南戏融歌唱、舞蹈、念白、科范于一炉,表演一个完整的故事。

  元代,戏曲繁盛发达。在“四大南戏”中,就有杭州的《拜月亭》,淳安的《杀狗记》……高明的一部《琵琶记》更是标志着南戏创新的高峰,被后世誉为“曲祖”。

  在中国的戏剧史上,很少有一出剧是从昆曲的经典剧目,再成为京剧的传统剧目的,洪昇的《长生殿》却做到了。这部历时十年多、几易其稿的剧本,以广阔的社会和政治为背景,表现了唐玄宗李隆基和杨玉环的爱情悲剧。这部剧本对历史素材加以精心选择和剪裁,人物刻画真实、丰满。

  明代戏曲四大声腔中的海盐腔、余姚腔也源出浙江。明末清初,浙江戏曲出现了高腔、乱弹、调腔、滩簧等多个戏曲声腔,并逐渐形成婺剧、绍剧、瓯剧、和剧,以及湖剧、姚剧、甬剧、越剧等地方戏曲剧种,更有苍南布袋戏、提线木偶戏、皮影戏等多种由艺人来操纵玩偶动作共同完成的戏曲形式。

  随着现代社会日益多元,生活方式发生了巨大变化,不少传统剧种开始式微。然而,作为现实与未来的源头,戏曲对传承浙江人文精神具有重要意义。

  在创新中抢救显得迫在眉睫。今天的浙江,已经开始建立健全地方戏曲传承发展体系,让地方戏曲活起来、传下去,出精品、出名家。同时,也加大了对重点戏曲院点的投入保障,扶持基层和民营戏曲艺术表演剧团,培育戏曲演出市场和年轻消费群体,开展校园戏曲普及活动。

  南戏遗响,越地长歌,乱弹绕梁,木偶情缘,皮影戏说……我们期待,每一个传统戏剧的重要剧目、表演特色、艺术风格,以及所承载的真善美,都可以既有白纸黑字的留存,又可以有人娓娓唱、众人倾心听。

  Melodious Charms

  Regional Operas: Remembrance of Yesteryears

  The theater circles in China have this consensus: half of the Chinese theater history is about regional operas in Zhejiang. The consensus testifies to the important role Zhejiang played in the development of Chinese theater.

  Yueju Opera represents the finest of province’s theater tradition. Though it is just over 100 years old, its national and international appeal is second only to Peking Opera and it is acclaimed as Chinese Opera in foreign media. The genre started in rural villages in Shengzhou and matured and thrived in Shanghai. It now enjoys its fame at home and abroad. In its growing years, it integrated best elements from Kunqu Opera, modern drama, Shaoju Opera. Yueju Opera oozes an aura of elegance and displays aesthetics redolent of the beauty of Jiangnan. Since the 1950s, Yueju Opera troupes from Zhejiang have been staging shows overseas.

  Theater thrived in Zhejiang in the Northern Song and the Southern Song. Hangzhou served as the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty from 1127 to 1279. During this period of time, troupes that had followed the royal house to the south performed northern-style Zaju plays in Hangzhou. It was around the same time that South Opera emerged as the first complete and mature genre in Wenzhou in southeastern Zhejiang. Though the opera was known to different people in different names in different times, the plays told a complete story and performers danced, sang, spoke poetic lines, and followed a full set of standardized moves and gestures.

  In the Yuan Dynasty, four prominent plays of South Opera emerged in Zhejiang. The Legendary of Pipa, written by Gao Ming, is considered the very landmark of South Opera and the prototype that engendered all the plays in regional operas across the country in following centuries.

  In the history of Chinese theater, few plays of Kunqu Opera have made their way into the repertoire of Peking Opera. The Palace of Eternal Life, a Kunqu Opera play by Hong Sheng (1645-1704), a native of Hangzhou and famous playwright and poet, got itself established firmly in the Peking Opera repertoire. The masterpiece was written and revised several times in more than 10 years before it was finalized. For its prominent merits and strengths, it is considered as one of the world’s major dramas.

  There emerged four major systems of theater tunes in the Ming Dynasty. Haiyan Tune and Yuyao Tune were Zhejiang local genres. In the decades that spanned the Ming and the Qing, a variety of theater tunes evolved in Zhejiang and gradually they grew into regional operas as they are known to us today. A variety of puppet shows also emerged and evolved in Zhejiang during the same time.

  The history of theater in Zhejiang is actually about economy, life, and culture. Many regional drama genres have been struggling and some have vanished due to the impact of the modern way of life and influences from the outside world. These regional operas and theater performances are actually about today and tomorrow, about the culture of Zhejiang. If they were gone, part of us would be lost forever. Zhejiang has put traditional operas on the list of cultural heritage in a bid to save them for the future. They are the cultural legacy we get from our ancestors and we carry on and give to future generations.

  Zhejiang has been conducting an overall project to protect, develop and boost the traditional theater genres. A set of measures are taken to salvage regional operas on the verge of extinction, designate a batch of places as homes of traditional operas, confirm legacy bases, support selected troupes and support plays, cultivate star artists, design and launch important events, and boost brands. Active measures are also taken to give financial and policy support to key troupes at the national and provincial level, support grassroots and private troupes and artists, cultivate markets and young theatergoers, promote general education on theater in primary and middle schools, and promote traditional operas in higher education institutions.

  Saving our regional operas means preserving all the important cultural aspects of these operas so that we and future generations will know each regional opera’s history, repertoire, key artists, characteristics of performance, artistic style, and the value the plays conveys and disseminate.

来源:浙江文化信息网

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